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Farsi

This is a practical short book on the Persian Language, as spoken in Iran. Perhaps it might be called Iranian or Persian, but the currently correct word is Farsi.


It was prepared by me, Peter Roberts, and my wife, Helena, when we had a spell working in Iran, near the Persian Gulf.


Before we first went out to Iran, to work as consultants on civil engineering and highway projects, we retained the services of a native speaking Iranian gentleman to teach us some Farsi. As our lessons became more complicated, we started making hand-written notes, and typed them up between lessons. Then we learned them. And so we made use of our typed notes, which later formed the foundation for our book.


Then, once we had arrived in Iran, we found that when we went out of Tehran onto site, very few people spoke English. At first we were alright because we were in a hotel, and so had no problem. However, after a while we transferred to self catering accommodation, and then we had to go to the local markets to buy food and other necessities.


That's where we got the idea of turning our notes into a small book - one each - so that we could get about independently as well as together.


I inserted all the business, office and engineering site vocabulary that I found useful, and my wife, who self-catered for some months there, inserted all the domestic and food words that she found useful as well. So the book is ideal for anyone going to Iran for any length of time and working away from Tehran. Few of the ordinary people speak English - particularly policemen, taxi drivers, workmen, shop keepers, and the like.


See more details by scrolling down.


ISBN 978-1-910537-11-4   Printed Version, Paperback.

ISBN 978-1-910537-02-2  Electronic Version.


The first thing that you will want to know is "What's in it?"   So here is the Table of Contents:


1.     Pronunciation & Grammar  (So we teach you how to pronounce it.)

a)     Vowels

b)     Consonants

c)     Syllabic division     

d)     Plurals

e)     Comparative, superlative

f)     Grammar


2.     Verb Structure (Then we teach you how to communicate using verbs.)

a)     Verb endings

b)     Subject pronouns

c)     Past tense

d)     Present tense

e)     Future tense

f)     To form the negative

g)     To form the imperative

h)     List of useful verbs

i)     Irregular verbs

j)     Regular verbs


3.     Some Handy Vocabulary  (Then we fill you in on the necessary words you will need.)

a)     Greetings

b)     Currency

c)     General

d)     Useful phrases

e)     Colours

f)     Countries and languages


4.     Shopping

a)     General vocabulary

b)     Groceries

c)     Household items

d)     Places to shop

e)     Useful phrases


5.     Dining Out

a)     General vocabulary

b)     Compliments or not!

c)     Useful phrases


6.     Around the house/hotel

a)     General vocabulary

b)     Useful phrases


7.     Travelling by car or taxi or rail

a)     General vocabulary

b)     Useful phrases


8.     Numbers

a)     Cardinal

b)     Ordinal


9.     Calendar


10.     Time     


11.     Work Environment

a)     General vocabulary

b)     Useful phrases

c)     Civil Engineering vocabulary


12.     Cookery and food information

a)     General vocabulary

b)     Useful phrases


13.     At the office

a)     General vocabulary

b)     Useful phrases


14.     Very important signs!  


(Finally, we show you some Persian script signs that are used in public places and that are important because in most cases, they do not have an English word next to them, and you need to be able to recognise them, and/or ask for them by showing the image to local people who don't speak English.)


Of all these, the signs for Male and Female are the most important. That is because you will sometimes need them for the toilets, but mostly, in Iran there is segregation of men from women in many places, such as at airports for checking, in mosques, etcetera, etcetera. So we provide these in the form of images, that you can use for the purpose. We know from personal experience that this will be helpful for you.



VERY IMPORTANT SIGNS TO LEARN


14. VERY IMPORTANT SIGNS in public places


Do try to learn the Farsi words and script shapes.


Entrance/IN          

Vorudi/Vorudi-e

ورود



Exit/OUT

Khuruj

خروج



Toilet

Tuâlet

توالت



Female (e.g. toilets)

Zanâneh    (feminine)

زنان



Male (e.g. toilets)

Mardâneh     (masculine)

مردانه


Hint from Helena Roberts: If you are reading this as a printed book, then try cutting out these last few important symbols from the book and make them into cards. I found it very useful to have little cards to show to people if needed.


WHEN READING THE FOLLOWING EXTRACTS, PLEASE BEAR IN MIND THAT

THESE ARE JUST TINY SAMPLES FROM A BOOK THAT IS 70 PAGES LONG.

IT CONTAINS A REAL WEALTH OF VERBS, WORDS, AND USEFUL PHRASES.



Persian

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Roberts' Rapid Farsi (Iranian, Persian)

Peter and Helena Roberts

Learn 35 words to speak Spanish

Learn Farsi

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THESE ARE A FEW EXTRACTS FROM THE BOOK

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NOTE THAT THE FOLLOWING ARE JUST SNIPPETS

FROM THE BOOK WITH MANY LINES DELETED.

They are presented here to show you what interesting and

useful information is contained in this compact book.

This is all the information we needed when living in Iran. We wrote it all down ourselves, so you can be sure that this book will be of great use to you.

They are presented here to show you what interesting and useful information is contained withing this compact book.

(Please note that any irregularities in spacings below are due to the website compiler. Neither the book nor the PDF file contains any such bad spacing variations.)


1.  PRONUNCIATION

                         

a)     Vowels

                                         As in the

                                      English word

i     long ee                                   sea

e     short e                                   bet

a     short a                                   cat

â     long ah                                   father


When followed by a consonant cluster the short vowels,

a, e, o are considerably lengthened.

All vowels are always pronounced fully


b)  Consonants                         As in the

                                           English word

p     p                                             pot +aspirated

b     b                                             bag

t     t                                              tap +aspirated

d     d                                              dog

k     k                                             king

g     hard g                                   go

q     rr     like the French guttural rr

' (apostrophe in a word)     do a glottal stop


c)  Syllabic division


1.  no internal syllable may begin with a vowel

2.  between the two consonants of a two consonant cluster

3.  between the 2nd and 3rd consonants of a three consonant cluster


All nouns, adjectives and prepositions are stressed on the last syllable.

The consonant cluster 'nd' is often reduced to 'n'

(raftand - raftan)


d)  Plurals


To make nouns plural add the suffix -hâ

this book               in ketâb

these books               in ketâbha


To make adjectives plural add the suffix as for nouns -

hâ, ân


e)  Comparative, superlative


To make a comparative adjective

add the suffix -tar

young                              kuchek

younger                    kuchektar


To make a superlative adjective

add the suffix -tarin

youngest     kuchektarin


f)  Grammar


Possessive suffix

my                              am

your                         et

his, hers, its     esh


my house          khane-am

our house          khane-emân



2.  VERB STRUCTURE


a)        verb endings      b) subject pronouns


I                         am                                        man


you                         i                                        to

     (very informal, best only used for relatives or

     close friends, or for children)


he/she               ad                                        u  

     (also, singular animate objects)


c)  The past stem of all verbs is formed by dropping the

     ending 'an' and adding the personal ending.


                         am                                        

                         i

                         -

                         im

                         id

                         and

     

d)  The present stem must be learned.


1.  Most but not all verbs ending in -idan are formed by removing the -id ending of the past stem.  (i.e. removing -idan)

2.     Verbs whose past stems end in -nd generally drop the -d


e) The future tense is formed by using the verb root of 'to want' -khâstan - khâh plus the present tense personal suffix

     khâham

     khâhi

     khâhad

plus the main verb root only


The future tense of compound verbs is formed by adding the auxiliary khâstan between the two parts of the compound verb.

to return                         bar gashtan

I will return                  man bar khâham gasht


f)  To form the negative add the prefix

'na' or 'ne'


g)  To form the singular imperative (command)

- a prefix is added to the present stem usually -be

take it!     begirid!


except:

i)  when followed in the next syllable by 'o' the prefix becomes bô

put it down!     bogozârid!


ii)  'aw' or 'u' the prefix becomes bô

(depending on the regional accent)

go!                              beravid!


h)  List of useful verbs


(present stem in brackets)


to ask           porsidan (pors)

to be           budan (hast)

to be able to     tavânestan (tavân)

to buy           khâridan (khâr)

to become , to be possible     shodan (shav)

to break      shekastan(shekan)

to bring      âvardan (âvor) +y

to build     sâkhtan (sâz)

to carry      bordan (bar)

to change (something)     avaz kardan (kôn)     

to clean     tamiz kardan (kon)

to come      âmadan (â)     


     NEVER say 'kardan' on its own as a word.

     NEVER say 'man kardam'.


to finish                                tamâm kardan (kon)

to forget                           farâmush kardan (kôn)


i)  Verb structure - Irregular Verbs


budan = to be (hast)

Present tense     Future tense     Past tense

hastam     khâham bud     budam

hasti     khâhi bud     budi

hast     khâhad bud     bud

hastim     khâhim bud     budim

hastid     khâhid bud     budid

hastand     khâhand bud     budand


dâshtan = to have (dâr)

Present tense     Future tense     Past tense

dâram     khâham dâsht     dâshtam

dâri     khâhi dâsht     dâshti

dârad     khâhad dâsht     dâsht

dârim      khâhim dâsht     dâshtim

dârid     khâhid dâsht     dâshtid

dârand     khâhand dâsht     dâshtand


kardan = to do (kon) pronounced cone!

Present tense     Future tense     Past tense

mikonam     khâham kard     kardam

mikoni     khâhi kard                         kardi

mikonad     khâhad kard     kard


j)  Verb structure - Regular Verbs     


khordan = to consume (eat or drink) (khor)

Present tense     Future tense     Past tense

mikhoram     khâham khord     khordam

mikhori     khâhi khord     khordi


kharidan = to buy (khar)

Present tense     Future tense     Past tense

mikharam     khâham kharid     kharidam

mikhari     khâhi kharid     kharidi


âvordan = to bring (âvor)

Present tense     Future tense     Past tense

miyâvaram     khâham âvard     âvardam

miyâvari     khâhi âvard     âvardi


porsidan = to ask (pors)

Present tense     Future tense     Past tense

miporsam     khâham porsid     porsidam

miporsi     khâhi porsid     porsidi




3.  SOME HANDY VOCABULARY

                 

a)  Greetings


hello                               salâm

good morning                sobh bekheyr

good evening                asr bekheyr     


good day                          ruz bekheyr  

     (all daylight hours)


good afternoon               zohr bekheyr

     (pm up to dusk)


good evening               asr bekheyr

good night                         shab bekheyr

goodbye at any time     khodâ hâfez


b)  Currency


100 Dînars =     1 Rial

10 Rials =      1 Toman

(Thus 1,000 Dinars in 1 Toman)


c)  General


above, over     bâlâ-ye

age          senn

also          ham

and          va

attractive/pretty/nice     ghashang

bag, carrier     nilon


d)  Useful phrases


Do you speak English?

     shoma Englesi harf mizanin?

Please speak slowly

     lotfan yavâsh harf mizanin


Did you understand?     motevajeh shodid?

I don't understand     ne mifahman


e)  Colours

black           sîâh     

blue           âbi

brown          ghahvehyî


f)  Countries and languages

Iran          iran

America     âmrikâ

England      engelestân

Europe      urupa

France      faranse



4. SHOPPING


a)  General vocabulary


I want to buy 'X'

     man mikhâham 'X' bekharam


cheap/cheaper/cheapest

     arzân/arzântar/arzântarim


expensive           gerân

fresh               tâze


how much?          cheghadr

     (as in a measureable quantity)


how much?          chândeh

     (as in price)


piece                 

     (as in dotâ = two pieces)


price               ghêimat


b)  Groceries


almond     bâdâm

anchovies     mâhi-ye koli

apple     sib

apricot     zardulâ

baked     pokhte

banana     mawz

bay leaf     barg-e bu

beans (red)     lubiyâ ghermez


c)  Household items


batteries     bâtri

cloth      pârché

matches     kebrit

newspaper       ruz name

          (means day letter)

paper      kâghaz (writing)


d)  Places to shop


bazaar     bazaar

selling place      furushî

shop      dokkân

shop      maghâzé

book selling place      ketâb furushî


e)  Useful phrases when out shopping


is there a grocer's shop close by?          ba'ghâi nazdîk-e?


I would like to buy 'x'      man mikhâham 'x' bekharam


May I taste it?               momken înha bechesham?

                         or      mishe man inhâ bechesham?


How do I cook it?          cetor-e mipozam (bepozam)?



5.  DINING OUT


a)  General vocabulary


bill  (the check)     surat-hesâb

bowl (of fruit)          zarf

chair                     sandalî

chef                     sar âshpaz

coffee                     ghahvé

cup                          fenjân


b)  Compliments or not!


I like it!          Man doost dâram!

I do not like it!     Man doost nadoram!

we like it!                  mâ doost dârîm!

tasty, delicious     khoshmazeh


c)  Useful phrases in the restaurant


Where is the toilet?

     Tuvalet kojâ-st?


Please, may I have the bill?

     Lotfan, surat hesâb biyârin


No ice, please

     Lotfan yakh nâdashte bâshe


6.  AROUND THE HOUSE OR HOTEL


a)  General vocabulary


bathroom          ham'ân

bed                     takht-é-khâb

breakfast           sob'hâné

clean               tamiz

dirty                kasîf

electric               barghi

electric stove      bokhârî barghi

fan                         fan


b)  Useful phrases


wash and iron     shostan va otu

not working     kâr nemikonid



7.  TRAVELLING BY CAR OR TAXI


a)  General vocabulary


central           markaz

             (centre of an area or space)


city centre                    markaz-e shah

house or home      khâné

just here/right here          namîn jâ

left                               chap

right                              râst


b)  Useful phrases when in a car


Please wait for me

     Lotfan montazer-e man bashîd


I will return in 5 minutes

     Man panj daghighé-ye digar bar/migardam


8.  NUMBERS


a)  Cardinal


0     sefr

1     yek          11     yâzdah

2     do          12     davâzdah

3     se          13     sizdah

4     chahâr     14     chahârdah

5     panj     15     pânzdah

6     shish     16     shânzdah

7     haft          17     hivdah

8     hasht     18     hizhdah

9     noh          19     nuzdah

10     dah          20     bist

                    

200     devist

300     sisad


9.  CALENDAR


(Saturday is always the first day of the week)


Saturday                shanbe (Shambe)

Sunday     y               ekshanbe

Monday               doshanbe

Tuesday               seshanbe

Wednesday               ch(ah)ârshanbe

Thursday               pânjshanbe

Friday (weekend)     jom'e


week                    hafteh

month                    mâh

year                         sâl


10.  TIME


day                    ruz

morning      sobh

afternoon     zohr

evening      asr

night           shab


today           emruz

tomorrow      fardâ



11.  WORK ON-SITE ENVIRONMENT


a)  General vocabulary


also               ham

bad                    bad

before           ghabl az

between      bêin-é

boulder          takht-e sang

bridge           pol

cement      simân

clay               rôs


b)  Useful phrases in the work environment


Where is the toilet?     tuvalet kojâ'st


stop thank you - enough      bas, base

     (polite as when having tea poured)


stop!  pause!     be-îst

     (as in 'stop walking, driving please. etc.

     e.g. as a polite instruction to a driver)


c)  Civil Engineering vocabulary


aggregate     sang dâne

backhoe     kajbil

bearing capacity     zarfiyate bârbari

bore hole     gamâne

boring     gamâne zani


acceptable quality level  

     hadde keifijate ghâbele shabool

     level quality acceptable


acceptable risk level  

     hadde khatare ghâbele shabool

     level risk acceptable



12.  COOKERY AND FOOD INFORMATION


a)  General vocabulary


slice                    ghâch

food                    ghazâ

breakfast          sobhune

lunch               nâhâr

dinner               shâm



13.  AT THE OFFICE


a)  General vocabulary


address               neshâni

book               ketâb

cartridge          feshang

copy                    noskhe

diary               sarresid-daftar khaterat

envelope          pakat

folder               pusheh


b)  Useful phrases

You could try writing these down onto a couple of small cards to carry round in your pocket.


Do you speak English?

     shoma englesi harf mizanin?


Please speak slowly.

     lotfan yavâsh harf mizanin



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